CONNECTING CULTURE, LANGUAGES AND TECHNOLOGY IN CLASSROOMS

             
              Connecting culture, language and technology in classrooms
 



 


view:  full / summary

Salzmannschule Schnefpenthal hosted Delhi International Public School

Posted by Edith Flores Wolff on November 18, 2015 at 11:55 AM Comments comments (0)

East Speaks West, West Speaks East - sharing languages and culture

 

East Speaks West, West Speaks East (ESWWSE) in cooperation with the Klassik Stiftung Weimar and Asia. This project focuses on introducing the Asian students to German language annd culture through the understanding of Weimar Classicism.

 

A group of seven students and two accompanying teachers from Delhi International Public School visited Salzmannschule Schnefpenthal as part of a student exchange program between these two schools from June 21, 2015 to July 3, 2015. It was a successful and very meaningful visit for both school from Asia and Europe.

 

The Indian students were able to immerse themselves by joining classes at the school during the first week of their stay and spent the afternoons visiting some major cities of Thüringen like Erfurt and Eisenach. A visit to the German Parliament ( Deutscher Bundestag) was made possible by the office of Mrs Antje Tillmann MdB, CDU/ CSU.

 

A chance to spend time with the family was given during the long weekend. The second week was appropriated in introducing Weimar Classicism to Indian and German students of Salzmannschule Schnefphental . This was offered and organized by Weimar Klassik Stiftung as part of their education program Cicerone+. Weimar Klassik Stiftung aims to impart culture to young people through understanding. The students were guided to several museums in Weimar and workshops were held, too. The week culminated during the last day with the with a theater performance performed by the students themselves presented in the historic rooms of the Wittumspalais. The actors wore costumes of the period.

 

Please click the link below for the presentation:

 

http://blog.klassik-stiftung.de/cicerone-kultur-vermitteln-kultur-verstehen/

 

A group of students and a teacher of Salzmannschule Schnefpenthal are scheduled to visit India in October this year. We wish them a wonderful and meaningful stay in India as guests of Delhi International Public School. This time, it would be the Germans immersing in the colorful and vibrant Indian culture.

Poems of Wolfgang von Goethe

Posted by Manjyot kaur on October 4, 2012 at 2:25 PM Comments comments (8)

Here are some nice poems of the famous poet and writer of germany ,Wolfgang von Goethe -

The Lovely Night

 

Now I leave this little hut,

Where my beloved lives,

Walking now with veiled steps

Through the shadowy leaves.

Luna shines through bush and oak,

Zephyr proclaims her path,

And the birch trees bowing low

Shed incense on her track.

How beautiful the coolness

Of this lovely summer night!

How the soul fills with happiness

In this true place of quiet!

I can scarcely grasp the bliss!

Yet, Heaven, I would shun

A thousand nights like this,

If my darling granted one.

 

May Song

 

How sweetly Nature

Brightens round me!

How the sun’s shining!

How the fields gleam!

 

Blossoms are bursting

From every leaf,

Thousands of voices

From bushes beneath,

 

And joy and bliss

From every eye.

O Earth, O Sun!

O Joy, O Delight.

 

O Love, O Love!

So golden fair,

Like morning clouds

On the hillside there!

 

Your splendour blesses

The fields so fresh,

The whole wide world

In a blossoming mist.

 

O Darling, Darling,

How I love you!

How your eyes shine!

How you love too!

 

So the lark loves

Singing on high,

And flowers at dawn

The scented sky,

 

As I love you

With veins on fire,

You who give me

Youth, Joy, Desire

 

For new dances

New poetry.

Be happy forever,

As you love me!

 

 

Welcome and Farewell

 

My heart was beating, swiftly to horse!

Faster even than thought it was done.

Already evening cradled earth’s course,

And night hung over the mountain cone:

Already the misty oak-tree stood,

A vast giant, towering upwards there,

Where from out the shadowy wood

A hundred dark eyes seemed to stare.

 

From a bank of cloud the Moon gazed,

Sadly out of the mist about her,

The winds beat soft wings, and strayed

Around my terror-stricken ears:

The night begot a thousand monsters,

But my spirit was joyful, lively:

Deep inside my veins what fire!

Deep inside my heart what heat!

 

I saw you, and full measure of bliss

Flowed to me from your sweet eyes:

I drew for you my every breath,

My heart was wholly on your side.

Springtime’s rose-red glow, it shone

All about your lovely face, lit

Tenderly for me – dear God!

I had hoped, but not deserved it!

But ah, already at morning light

My heart was crushed in parting:

In your kisses what delight!

In your eyes what suffering!

I went, you stood, looked from above,

And saw me go with tearful gaze:

And yet what joy to be loved!

Dear God, to love what happiness!

 

The Rose-Bush on The Moor

 

A lad he saw a rose-bush growing,

Rose-bush on the moor,

Young and lovely as the morning,

Quick he ran to see it glowing,

With delight he saw.

Rose-bush, rose-bush, rose-bush red,

Rose-bush on the moor.

 

Said the lad: I’ll pick your bloom,

Rose-bush on the moor!

Said the rose: ‘Ah, I’ll prick you,

So you will remember true,

I’ll let you do no more.

Rose-bush, rose-bush, rose-bush red,

Rose-bush on the moor.

 

Then her bloom the cruel lad picked,

The rose-bush on the moor:

To protect herself she pricked,

Cried, sighed, in vain, but quickly

Could defend no more.

Rose-bush, rose-bush, rose-bush red,

Rose-bush on the moor.

 

 

The Violet

 

A violet in the meadow grew,

Bowed to earth, and hid from view:

It was a dear sweet violet.

Along came a young shepherdess

Free of heart, and light of step,

Came by, came by,

Singing, through the flowers.

 

Oh! Thought the violet, were I,

If only for a little while,

Nature’s sweetest flower yet,

Till my Beloved picked me, pressed

Me fainting, dying to her breast!

So I might lie,

There, for but an hour!

 

Alas! Alas! The girl went past:

Unseen the violet in the grass,

Was crushed, poor violet.

It drooped and died, and yet it cried:

‘And though I die, yet still I die

By her, by her,

By her feet passing by.’

 

 

 

The Artist’s Evening Song

 

Oh, for some inner creative force

Through my mind, echoing!

That through my hands might course

A sap-filled blossoming.

 

I only shudder, I only stutter,

And yet can’t halt: at last,

I feel I know you, Nature,

And must hold you fast.

 

When I think how all these years

My powers have been growing,

And where barren heath appeared

Now streams of joy are flowing:

 

How I yearn for you, Nature, then,

And long for you, with faith and love!

For me you’ll be the leaping fountain,

A thousand springs will hurl above.

 

And every single power

In my mind you’ll heighten,

And this narrow being-here

To Eternity you’ll widen.

 

New Love, New Life

 

Heart, my heart, what can it mean?

What could trouble you so?

What a strange new life, it seems!

You, I no longer know.

Everything you loved is done,

Everything that grieved you,

All your work and peace is gone –

How could this overtake you!

 

Are you caught by lovely youth

By that beloved form,

By those eyes so good and true,

By that all-powerful force?

When I try to run away,

Collect myself and flee,

In a moment my path strays

Back to her you see.

 

By that magic thread, so

That cannot be untied,

The dear wanton girl, oh

She holds me fast: and I

Must lie within her magic spell

And live where she may go.

How great the change, I tell!

Love! Love! Let me go!

 

To Belinda

 

Oh, why do you draw me, irresistibly,

Into all this magnificence?

Was I not living happy, virtuously,

In midnight’s solitariness?

 

Quietly secluded in my chamber,

In the moonlight I lay,

Drowned in its shining shower,

Into which I’d stray:

Dreaming of hours, golden, filled

With unmixed delight,

Your sweet form now so distilled

Deep within my mind.

 

Can it be me that you imprison

Among all these lights?

Made to hold the insufferable vision

Of faces forever in sight?

 

The springtime blossom in the meadow

Charms me less by far:

Where you are, Angel, is Love, and Virtue,

Nature is where you are.

 

 

‘Holde Lili, warst so lang’

 

Sweetest Lili, for so long

All my joy and all my song!

Ah, now, all my pain, yet you

Are still all my singing too.

 

 

The Traveller’s Night Song I

 

You who are from Heaven above

Calming all our pain and sorrow,

Him who’s spirit’s doubly hurt,

Renewing, with a double measure.

Oh, I’m weary of life’s urging!

Why, now, all this joy and pain?

Sweetest Peace,

Flood: oh flood my heart again!

 

 

The Traveller’s Night Song II

 

Over all the hill-tops

Is Rest,

In all the tree-tops

You can feel

Scarcely a breath:

The little birds quiet in the leaves.

Wait now, soon you

Too will have peace.

 

 

The Fisherman

 

The waters hissed, the waters rose,

The Fisherman alongside,

Quietly gazing at his rod,

Cool at heart, inside.

And as he listens, as he sits,

The waters split and rise:

Out of the flowing waters hiss

A mermaid meets his eyes.

 

She sang to him, she spoke to him:

‘Why do you lure my children

With human art and cunning,

Up to their warm extinction?

Ah, if you knew how snugly

Little fish live in the deep,

You yourself would join me,

You’d be happy indeed.

 

Doesn’t the sweet Sun bathe

And the Moon, here, in the sea?

Show with the waves they breathe

Faces doubly bright to see?

Doesn’t this heavenly deep,

Lure you, this rain-clear blue?

Doesn’t your own gaze leap

Drawn down to eternal dew?’

The water hissed, the water rose

Wetting his naked feet:

His heart so full of yearning, oh,

As if him his Love did greet.

She spoke to him, she sang to him:

All was soon done, and o’er:

She half pulling, he half sinking,

And he was seen nevermore.

 

The ErlKing

 

Who rides so late through the wind and night?

It’s a father with his child so light:

He clasps the boy close in his arms,

Holds him fast, and keeps him warm.

 

‘My son, why hide your face, all scared? –

‘Don’t you see, Father, the Erlking’s there,

The Alder-King with his crown and robe?’ –

‘My son, it’s the trail of mist that flows’. –

 

‘Come, dear child, come along with me!

The games we’ll play will be fine and lovely:

There’s many a bright flower by the water,

Many gold garments has my Mother.’

 

‘And Father, my Father, can’t you hear

What the Erlking’s whispering in my ear?’ –

‘Peace, peace, my child, you’re listening

To those dry leaves rustling in the wind.’-

 

‘Fine lad, won’t you come along with me?

My lovely daughters your slaves shall be:

My daughters dance every night, and they

Will rock you, sing you, dance you away.’

 

‘And Father, my Father, can’t you see where

The Erlking’s daughters stand shadowy there? –

‘My Son, my Son, I can see them plain:

It’s the ancient Willow-trees shining grey.’

 

‘I love you, I’m charmed by your lovely form:

And if you’re not willing, I’ll have to use force.’

‘Father, my Father, he’s gripped me at last!

The Erlking’s hurting me, holding me fast! –

 

The Father shudders, faster he rides,

Holding the moaning child so tight,

Reaching the house, in fear and dread:

But in his arms the child lies dead.

 

Germany- India Relations

Posted by Vanshika Agarwal on October 3, 2012 at 6:45 PM Comments comments (0)

The bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Federal Republic of Germany have been traditionally strong due to strong commercial, cultural and strategic cooperation. 

History

Enthusistic welcome offered to the first Indian student to arrive to Dresden, East Germany (1951)India and Germany have enjoyed long-standing historic and cultural ties. Nazi Germany supported Indian political leader Subhash Chandra Bose's bid for armed struggle against British colonial rule and helped organize the Indian National Army along with Japan. India was the first nation to end the state of war with Germany after the Second World War.  After a spell in Argentina, aircraft designer Kurt Tank, who worked for Focke-Wulf during World War II, moved to India. First he worked as Director of the Madras Institute of Technology, and later joined Hindustan Aeronautics, where he designed the Hindustan Marut fighter-bomber, the first military aircraft constructed in India. Tank left Hindustan Aeronautics in 1967 and by the 1970s had returned to live in Berlin.

India maintained diplomatic relations with both West Germany and East Germany but supported their reunification in 1990.

Development of bilateral ties

Germany has extensively supported education and cultural development in India. Germany helped establish the Indian Institute of Technology Madras after both governments signed an agreement in 1956 and increased its cooperation and supply of technology and resources over the decades to help expand the institution.

In 2008, both nations established the Indo-German Science and Technology Centre in New Delhi to promote joint research and development in energy, environment, coal and water technologies. Germany is India's largest European trading partner and the 5th largest trade partner. Current trade volume stands at € 10.5 billion in 2006, € 12.7 billion in 2007-08 and both nations see it increasing to € 30 billion by 2010. India and Germany enjoy strong commerce and cooperation in telecommunications, engineering, environmental technology, food processing, chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

Strategic ties

In the 1990s, Germany condemned India's 1998 nuclear tests, but has since expanded its cooperation with India in fighting terrorism and conducting joint military exercises. Germany has also supported India's waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group to trade nuclear materials and energy. In 2008, the Indian navy

 and the German navy conducted joint exercises for the first time, following a defense cooperation agreement between the two nations signed in 2006. India has so far launched seven German satellites into Polar orbits since 1999.

National Anthem of India and Germany

Posted by Vanshika Agarwal on October 3, 2012 at 6:25 PM Comments comments (7)

NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA

Andaman and Nicobar Islands · Andhra Pradesh · Arunachal Pradesh · Assam · Bihar · Chhattisgarh · Goa · Gujarat · Haryana · Himachal Pradesh · Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh · Jharkhand · Karnataka · Kerala · Madhya Pradesh · Maharashtra · Manipur · Meghalaya · Mizoram · Nagaland · Orissa · Punjab · Rajasthan · Sikkim · Tamil Nadu ( Ancient ) · Tripura · Uttar Pradesh · Uttarakhand · West Bengal ( Bengali · Rabindra Sangeet )

" Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India. Written in highly Sanskritised (Tatsama) Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung in ] Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911. "Jana Gana Mana" was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950. 27 December 2011 marked the completion of 100 years of Jana Gana Mana since it was sung for the first time.

As there is enormous diversity in Indian languages, it is interesting to know how the National Anthem that is written in Bengali can be understood by other Indians who do not know Bengali. The song has a lot of Sanskrit words that also are found in the majority of Indian languages with the same meaning. This makes the song understandable to non-Bengali speaking Indians.

The original poem written by Rabindranath Tagore was translated into Hindi by Abid Ali. The original Hindi version of the song Jana Gana Mana, translated by Ali and based on the poem by Tagore, was a little different. It was "Sukh Chain Ki Barkha Barase, Bharat Bhagya Hai Jaga....". Jana Gana Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950.

 

A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Margaret Cousins (an expert in European music and wife of Irish poet James Cousins), set down the notation at Madanapalle in Andhra Pradesh, which is followed only when the song is sung in the original slow rendition style of singing. However, when the National Anthem version of the song is sung, it is done in the traditional grandiose Martial Style of music.

 

NATIONAL ANTHEM OF GERMANY............:)

The "Deutschlandlied" also known as "Das Lied der Deutschen" or "The Song of the Germans"), has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. Since World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany, only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem.

The music was written by Joseph Haydn in 1797 as an anthem for the birthday of the Austrian Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1841, the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the lyrics of "Das Lied der Deutschen" to Haydn's melody, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time.

The song is also well known by the opening words and refrain of the first stanza, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles" (literally, "Germany, Germany above all"), but this has never been its title. The line "Germany, Germany above all" meant that the most important goal of the Vormärz revolutionaries should be a unified Germany overcoming the perceived anti-liberal Kleinstaaterei. Alongside the Flag of Germany it was one of the symbols of the March Revolution of 1848.

In order to endorse its republican and liberal tradition, the song was chosen for national anthem of Germany in 1922, during the Weimar Republic. West Germany adopted the Deutschlandlied as its official national anthem in 1952 for similar reasons, with only the third stanza sung on official occasions. Upon German reunification in 1990, only the third stanza was confirmed as the national anthem.

Deutschland, Deutschland über alles

Über alles in der Welt

Wenn es stehte zun Schutz und Trutze

Brüderlich zusammen hält

Von der Maas bis an die Memel

 

Von der Etsch bis an den Belt

 

Deutschland, Deutschland über alles

 

Über alles in der Welt

 

Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue

 

Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang

 

Sollen in der Welt behalten

 

Ihren alten schönen Klang

 

Uns zu edler tat begeistern

 

Unser ganzes Leben lang

 

Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue

 

Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang

 

Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit

 

Für das deutsche Vaterland

 

Danach lasst uns alle streben

 

Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand

 

Einigkei und Recht und Freiheit

 

Sind des Glückes Unterpfand

 

Blüh im Glanze dieses Glückes

 

Blühe deutsches Vaterland

Famous Quotations.....By famous people........

Posted by Vanshika Agarwal on October 3, 2012 at 12:35 AM Comments comments (3)

FAMOUS QUOTIONS..........

"Every beauty which is seen here below by persons

of perception resemble more than anything else that celestial

source from which we all are come...."

-Michelangelo (1475-1564)

"I celebrate myself, and sing myself,

And what I assume you shall assume,

For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you."

-Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

"Heaven will be inherited by every man

who has heaven in his soul."

-Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1887)

"Imagination is more important than knowledge.

Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world."

-Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"Learn to get in touch with the silence within yourself

and know that everything in life has a purpose."

-Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1926 -)

"Beauty in things exists in the mind which contemplates them."

-David Hume (1711-1776)

"The whole of life, from the moment you are born

to the moment you die, is a process of learning."

-Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895-1986)

"The mystic bond of brotherhood makes all men one."

-Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)

"My heart leaps up when I behold a rainbow in the sky."

-William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

"The clearest way into the universe

is through a forest wilderness."

-John Muir (1838-1914)

"What else is nature but God?"

-Seneca (4? B.C.-65 A.D.)

"A faithful friend is the medicine of life."

-The Apocrypha, 6:16

"They are alive and well somewhere,

the smallest sprout shows there is really no death..."

-George Washington Carver (1864-1943)

"The superior reasoning power...revealed in the

incomprehensible universe, forms my idea of God."

-Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"Patience is the companion of wisdom."

-Saint Augustine (354-430)

"Most folks are as happy as they make up their minds to be."

-Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

"In my Father's house are many mansions."

-The Bible, John 14:2

"Sit in reverie and watch the changing color of the waves

that break upon the idle seashore of the mind."

-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)

"People are like stained-glass windows.

They sparkle and shine when the sun is out,

but when the darkness sets in,

their true beauty is revealed only

if there is light from within."

-Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1926 -)

"Life is what we make it, always has been, always will be."

-Grandma Moses (1860-1961)

"The best and most beautiful things in the world

cannot be seen, nor touched...but are felt in the heart."

-Helen Keller (1880-1968)

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers

brought forth on this continent a new nation,

conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition

that all men are created equal."

-Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

"Because man and woman are the complement of one another,

we need woman's thought in national affairs to make

a safe and stable government."

-Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

"You are the people who are shaping a better world.

One of the secrets of inner peace is the practice of compassion."

-Dalai Lama (1935 -)

"It is a wholesome and necessary thing for us to turn

again to the earth and in the contemplation of her beauties

to know of wonder and humility."

-Rachel Carson (1907-1964)

"Those things that nature denied to human sight,

she revealed to the eyes of the soul."

-Ovid (43 B.C.-17 A.D.)

"Change your thoughts, and you change your world."

-Norman Vincent Peale (1898-1993)

"To me every hour of the light and dark is a miracle,

Every cubic inch of space is a miracle."

-Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

"For what is Mysticism? It is not the attempt to draw near to God,

not by rites or ceremonies, but by inward disposition?

Is it not merely a hard word for 'The Kingdom of Heaven is within'?

Heaven is neither a place nor a time."

-Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

"Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves,

and, under a just God, cannot retain it."

-Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

"We all live with the objective of being happy;

our lives are all different and yet the same."

-Anne Frank (1929-1945)

"Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it,

no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own

reason and your own common sense."

-Buddha (536 B.C.-483 B.C.)

"Sometime they'll give a war and nobody will come."

-Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)

"If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn

the world upside down all alone, these women together ought

to be able to turn it back, and get it right side up again!

And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them."

-Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)

"The true republic: men, their rights and nothing more:

women, their rights and nothing less."

-Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)

"The soul should always stand ajar.

Ready to welcome the ecstatic experience."

-Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

"Where'er a noble deed is wrought,

Where'er is spoken a noble thought,

Our hearts in glad surprise

To higher levels rise."

-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)

"Intuition will tell the thinking mind where to look next."

-Jonas Salk (1914-1995)

"Live Large!"

Don Pendleton (1927-1995)

"So many gods, so many creeds;

So many paths that wind and wind,

While just the art of being kind

Is all the sad world needs."

-Ella Wheeler Wilcox (1850-1919)

"You cannot play the game of life with sweaty palms."

-"Dr. Phil," Phillip C. McGraw (1950 -)

"If something comes to life in others because of you,

then you have made an approach to immortality."

-Norman Cousins (1912-1990)

"Surround yourself with only people who are going to lift you higher."

-Oprah Winfrey (1954 -)

"Freedom is the last, best hope of earth."

-Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

"Woman will always be dependant until she holds a purse of her own."

-Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

"Follow your bliss."

-Joseph Campbell (1904-1987)

"What befalls the earth befalls all the sons of the earth.

This we know: the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth.

All things are connected like the blood that unites us all.

Man does not weave this web of life. He is merely a strand of it.

Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself."

-Chief Seattle (1786-1866)

"I found that when I talk to the little flower or to the little peanut

they will give up their secrets..."

-George Washington Carver (1804-1903)

"Science may have found a cure for most evils,

but it has found no remedy for the worst of them all-

the apathy of human beings."

-Helen Keller (1880-1968)

"Follow your instincts. That's where true wisdom manifests itself."

-Oprah Winfrey (1954 -)

"Time is

Too slow for those who Wait,

Too swift for those who Fear,

Too long for those who Grieve,

Too short for those who Rejoice,

But for those who Love

Time is not."

-Henry Vandyke (1852-1933)

"God is the friend of silence.

See how nature-trees, flowers, grass-grows in silence;

see the stars, the moon and the sun, how they move in silence...

We need silence to be able to touch souls."

-Mother Teresa (1910-1997)

"When one door of happiness closes, another opens;

but often we look so long at the closed door that we do

not see the one which has been opened for us."

-Helen Keller (1880-1968)

"Hope is a thing with feathers

That perches in the soul;

And sings the tune without words

And never stops at all."

-Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

"I could not, at any age, be content to take my place

by the fireside and simply look on. Life was meant to be lived.

Curiosity must be kept alive. One must never, for whatever reason,

turn his back on life."

-Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)

"Peace cannot be kept by force.

It can only be achieved by understanding."

-Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"Leave nothing for tomorrow which can be done today."

-Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

"Meditation is not a means to an end.

It is both the means and the end."

-Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895-1986)

"Some people are so afraid to die that they never begin to live."

-Henry Vandyke (1852-1933)

"Faith furnishes prayer with wings,

without which it cannot soar to Heaven."

-St. John Climacus (525-600)

"No one can make you feel inferior without your consent."

-Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)

"It is my conviction that it is the intuitive, spiritual aspects

of us humans-the inner voice-that gives us the 'knowing,'

the peace, and the direction to go through the windstorms of life,

not shattered but whole, joining in love and understanding."

-Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1926 -)

"We are not human beings having a spiritual experience.

We are spiritual beings having a human experience."

-Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955)

"You give but little when you give of your possessions.

It is when you give of yourself that you truly give."

-Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931)

"Just as there is no loss of basic energy in the universe,

so no thought or action is without its effects,

present or ultimate, seen or unseen, felt or unfelt."

-Norman Cousins (1912-1990)

"It is better to be a lion for a day than a sheep all your life."

-"Sister" Elizabeth Kenny (1886-1952)

"Nature is an unlimited broadcasting station, through which God

speaks to us every hour, if we only will tune in."

-George Washington Carver (1864-1943)

"The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams."

-Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)

"Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting;

The soul that rises with us, our life's star,

Hath had elsewhere its setting,

And cometh from afar;

Not in entire forgetfulness,

And not in utter nakedness,

But railing clouds of glory do we come

From God, who is our home."

-William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

"When you see your brother, you see God."

-St. Clement of Alexandria (c.A.D. 150-c.215)

"As a tale, so is life; not how long

it is, but how good it is, is what matters."

-Seneca (4? B.C.-65 A.D.)

"God will not look your over for medals,

degrees or diplomas, but for scars."

-Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915)

"The soul is not where it lives but where it loves."

-Thomas Fuller (1654-1734)

"There is another reality enfolding ours-as close as our breath!"

-Don Pendleton (1927-1995)

"Hush, my dear, lie still and slumber

Holy Angels guard thy bed!

Heavenly blessings without number

Gently falling on thy head."

-Isaac Watts (1674-1748)

"I long to accomplish a great and noble task, but it is my chief

duty to accomplish small tasks as if they were great and noble."

-Helen Keller (1880-1968)

"Love is doing small things with great love."

-Mother Teresa (1910-1997)

"Conscience is God's presence in man."

-Emanuel Swedenborg (1688

"Love is the only thing that we can carry with us when we go,

and it makes the end so easy."

-Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888)

"The veil that clouds your eyes shall

be lifted by the hands that wove it."

-Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931)

"The universe is but one vast Symbol of God."

-Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)

"All the kindness which a man puts out into the world

works on the heart and thoughts of mankind."

-Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)

"I leave you, hoping that the lamp of liberty

will burn in your bosoms until there shall no longer

be a doubt that all men are created free and equal."

-Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)..........

Yummy Indian Cuisines

Posted by Simran Sahni on September 28, 2012 at 6:00 PM Comments comments (8)

INDIAN CUISINES


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/__HgXpx5ScFw/TCoI4G0119I/AAAAAAAAAOE/ZDz76TZ-sp8/s1600/Regional+Indian+food.jpg

Indian food is different from rest of the world not only in taste but also in cooking methods. It reflects a perfect blend of various cultures and ages. Just like Indian culture, food in India has also been influenced by various civilizations, which have contributed their share in its overall development and the present form.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Momo101.jpg/220px-Momo101.jpg

http://www.indianetzone.com/photos_gallery/9/GujaratiCuisine_19188.jpg

Foods of India are better known for its spiciness. Throughout India, be it North India or South India, spices are used generously in food. But one must not forget that every single spice used in Indian dishes carries some or the other nutritional as well as medicinal properties.


http://cometokitchen.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/north_south_indian_food.jpg

North Indian Food

http://i349.photobucket.com/albums/q371/d-k-photos/Kashmiri%20Pulao/KashmiriPulao000009.jpg

http://food.sulekha.com/dishimages/24774.jpg

Food in the north India, to begin with, Kashmiri cuisines reflect strong Central Asian influences. In Kashmir, mostly all the dishes are prepared around the main course of rice found abundantly in the beautiful valley.


http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_nBZFaTrURo8/TQkWcwSDIoI/AAAAAAAAAKE/kMfutPotFMs/s1600/DSC01287.JPG

Another delicious item cooked here is the 'Saag' that is prepared with a green leafy vegetable known as the 'Hak'.But on the other hand states like the Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh show high consumption of chapatis as staple food.

http://www.vegetariansrecipes.org/pictures/Naan-Susheel.JPG

http://i349.photobucket.com/albums/q371/d-k-photos/Rumali%20roti/RumaliRoti00028.jpg

Again, these chapatis are prepared with a variety of flours such as wheat, rice, maida, besan etc. Besides chapatis other closely related breads baked in these regions include Tandoori, Rumaali and Naan etc. However in the northern region impact of Mughlai food is quite obvious.

http://cdn.bestindianfoodcatering.com/images/300/Tandoori-Chicken-1.jpg

http://www.culturalindia.net/gifs/mughlai-cuisine.jpg

West Indian Food


http://www.manahotels.in/traveller/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Rajasthani-Thali.jpg

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-PutnfJc4TVc/TaFTH6l548I/AAAAAAAAA6M/8H_-Z9Hnue8/s1600/achar.jpg

http://www.hyd.co.in/images/gujarati-food.jpg

In western India, the desert cuisine is famous for its unique taste and varieties of food. Rajasthan and Gujarat are the states that represent the desseert flavor of Indian food. Here an immense variety of dals and achars (pickles/preserves) is used that simply substitutes the relative lack of fresh vegetables in these areas.


http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3109/2821796486_7e351040fa_o.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_m4M-Pu9SqSg/S-XE2YUpWcI/AAAAAAAAAAk/FqnzjQ4exHc/s320/east+indian+food.jpg

In the states like Maharashtra, the food is usually a mix of both north as well as south cooking styles. Here people use both the rice and the wheat with same interest. Along the coastline of Mumbai a wide variety of fishes is available. Some of the delicious preparations include dishes like the Bombay Prawn and Pomfret.


http://www.ubuntudeal.co.za/images/deal/644_2256.jpg

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_63mUyNce2ag/TRcW681GpaI/AAAAAAAAI8U/qY6h3Gpt_OY/s1600/DSC03677.JPG

http://8020.photos.jpgmag.com/3111824_262595_8a272c12b0_l.jpg

In Goa, that is further down towards south, one can notice Portuguese influence in the cooking style as well as in the dishes. Some of the major dishes of this regiun are the sweet and sour Vindaloo, duck baffad, sorpotel and egg molie etc.

East Indian Food


http://images02.olx.in/ui/5/94/57/1270716147_86648757_1-Authentic-Bengali-Food-in-Noida-NOIDA-1270716147.jpg

In the eastern India, the Bengali and Assamese styles of cooking are noticeable. The staple food of Bengalis is the yummy combination of rice and fish. Usually the Bengalis love eating varieties of fishes. A special way of preparing the delicacy known as 'Hilsa' is by wrapping it in the pumpkin leaf and then cooking it.

http://1spoon.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/sorsheyillishweb4col.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_nwvtIHqOyMY/TK5pPQa_sdI/AAAAAAAACBA/tFZVNt4LXNs/s1600/Assamese+Thali+001.jpg

Another unusual ingredient that is commonly used in the Bengali cooking is the 'Bamboo Shoot'. Various sweets prepared in this region, by using milk include the 'Roshogollas', 'Sandesh', 'Cham-cham' and many more.

http://www.cookindianfood.com/site/images/sandesh.jpg

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1070701/images/01rosogolla.jpg

South Indian Food


http://www.medimanage.com/Images/south%20indian%20food.jpg


http://www.efood.bh/image.php?type=T&id=112

In the southern India, the states make great use of spices, fishes and coconuts, as most of them have coastal kitchens. In the foods of Tamil Nadu use of tamarind is frequently made in order to impart sourness to the dishes. It simply distinguishes the Tamil Food from other cuisines


http://isitambu.webs.com/chillies.jpg

The cooking style of Andhra Pradesh is supposed to make excessive use of chilies, which is obviously to improve the taste of the dishes.  

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_GVEDZTtlGyc/SwTeCGhFzvI/AAAAAAAAEG8/bWdtz5tZbyg/s1600/appam6.jpg

http://mykeralahotels.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Puttu.jpg

In Kerala, some of the delicious dishes are appams, Malabar fried prawns, Idlis, Dosas, fish molie and rice puttu.


http://www.finecooking.com/CMS/uploadedimages/Images/Cooking/Articles/Issues_1-10/051002020-coconut-milk.jpg

Another famous item of this region is the sweetened coconut milk. Yet another dish is Puttu, which is glutinous rice powder steamed like a pudding in a bamboo shoot.

Dress Culture Of India (WOMEN)

Posted by Shreya Gulati ੴ on September 28, 2012 at 2:05 PM Comments comments (2)

Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced by local culture, geography, climate and rural/urban settings. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. Stitched clothes are also popular such as churidar or salwar-kameez for women, with dupatta (long scarf) thrown over shoulder completing the outfit. Salwar is often loose fitting, while churidar is a theater cut.For men, stitched versions include kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men. In urban centers, people can often be seen in jeans, trousers, shirts, suits, kurta and variety of other fashions

In public and religious places, Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. Most Indian clothes are made from cotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy, majority of Indians wear sandals.

Indian women perfect their sense of charm and fashion with make up and ornaments. Bindi, mehendi, earrings, bangles and other jewelry are common. On special occasions, such as marriage ceremonies and festivals, women may wear cheerful colors with various ornaments made with gold, silver or other regional stones and gems.

Bindi is often an essential part of a Hindu woman's make up. Worn on their forehead, some consider the bindi as an auspicious mark. Traditionally, the red bindi was worn only by married Hindu women, and colored bindi was worn by single women, but now all colors and glitter has become a part of women's fashion. Some women wear sindoor - a traditional red or orange-red colored powder (vermilion) in the parting of their hair (locally called as mang). Sindoor is the traditional mark of a married woman for Hindus. Single Hindu women do not wear sindoor; neither do over 100 million Indian women from religions other than Hindu and agnostics/atheists who may be married.

SARI


A saree or sari  is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent. A sari is a strip of unstitched cloth, ranging from four to nine metres in length, that is draped over the body in various styles. There are various traditional styles of saree: Sambalpuri Saree from East, Kanchipuram from South, Paithani from West and Banarasi from North among others.The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with one end then draped over the shoulder baring the midriff. The sari is usually worn over a petticoat. Blouse may be "backless" or of a halter neck style. These are usually more dressy with a lot of embellishments such as mirrors or embroidery and may be worn on special occasions. Women in the armed forces, when wearing a sari uniform, don a half-sleeve shirt tucked in at the waist. Teenage girls wear half-sarees, a three piece set consisting of a langa, a choli and a stole wrapped over it like a saree. Women usually wear full sarees
.
 
Saris are known with different names in different places. In Kerala, white saris with golden border, are known as kavanis and are worn on special occasions. A simple white sari, worn as a daily wear, is called a mundu. Saris are called pudavai in Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka, saris are called kupsas.

 

Ghagra Choli (lehenga choli)


A Ghagra Choli or a Lehenga Choli is the traditional clothing of women in Rajasthan and Gujarat.[citation needed] Punjabis also wear them and they are used in some of their folk dances. It is a combination of lehenga, a tight choli and a odhani. A lehenga is a form of long skirt which is pleated. It is usually embroidered or has a thick border at the bottom. A choli is a blouse shell garment, which is cut to fit to the body and has short sleeves and a low neck.

 

Different styles of ghagra cholis are worn by the women, ranging from a simple cotton lehenga choli as a daily wear, a traditional ghagra with mirrors embellished usually worn during navratri for the garba dance or a fully embroidered lehenga worn during marriage ceremonies by the bride.

 

Popular among unmarried women other than shalwar kameez are Gagra choli and Langa odhani.

Salwar Kameez


 

The salwar kameez is the traditional wear of women in Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir and has become the most popular dress for females. It consists of loose trousers (the salwar) narrow at the ankles, topped by a tunic top (the kameez). It is often misnamed as "Punjabi suit" or simply "shalwar" in the north and "churidaar" in Southern India. Women generally wear a dupatta or odani (Veil) with salwar kameez to cover their head and shoulders. It was introduced by the Muslims and originates from the Islamic era or old Iranian culture. It is very common in Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is always worn with a scarf called a dupatta, which is used to cover the head and drawn over the bosom. The material for the dupatta usually depends upon that of the suit, and is generally of cotton, georgette, silk, chiffon among others.[citation needed] This dress is worn by almost every teenage girl in lieu of western clothes. The salwar kameez is most common in the northwestern part of India. Many actresses wear the salwar kameez in Bollywood movies.[citation needed].

Churidaar Kurta


Churidaar is a version of salwar, which is loose up to knees and then fits the calf below. A salwar is a baggy pyjama with pleats which gets narrow at the ankles whereas churidaar fits below the knees with horizontal gathers near the ankles. Usually a long kurta, which goes below the knees, is worn with the churidaar.

Pattu Pavadai(Tamil) or Langa davani( Kannada) or Langa Oni (Telugu)


Pattu Pavadai or Langa davani is a traditional dress in south India, usually worn by teenage and small girls. The pavada is a cone-shaped garment, usually of silk, that hangs down from the waist to the toes. It normally has a golden border at the bottom.

 

Girls in south India often wear pattu pavadai or Langa davani during traditional functions.


 THANK YOU!







The Greatest Scientist of the World- Dr. Albert Einstein

Posted by Japtegh Singh on September 27, 2012 at 8:50 AM Comments comments (3)


"Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius- and a lot of courage - to move in the opposite direction."


Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein.

He developed the general theory of relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, he is often regarded as "the father of modern physics" and the most influential physicist of the 20th century. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His great intelligence and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.

                http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/uploadedImages/Home/Articles/Biography/Articles/Einstein1921.jpg?n=8999

                 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Albert_Einstein_signature_1934.svg/585px-Albert_Einstein_signature_1934.svg.png



Let us look at some of the famous discoveries and inventions of Albert Einstein followed by his life history -

1. THE MANHATTAN PROJECT

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the United States, becoming a citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. The Atomic Bomb came as a byproduct with the Manhattan Project.

                    

                    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_03_img0520.jpg

     "Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding."


2. THE EINSTEIN REFRIGERATOR

 

The Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts and requires only a heat source to operate - it does not require electricity to operate, needing only a heat source, e.g. a small gas burner, suitable for poor countries and outdoor activities. It was jointly invented in 1926 by Albert Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd and patented in the US on November 11, 1930. 

                        

http://lh4.ggpht.com/vikash2020india/SOFrQOnOOKI/AAAAAAAAAKE/chaxw6KuOhs/386px-Einstein_Refrigerator_thumb%5B8%5D.png


3. THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

This theory provides a consistent explanation for the way radiation (light, for example) and matter interact when viewed from different inertial frames of reference, that is, an interaction viewed simultaneously by an observer at rest and an observer moving at uniform speed.

He thought that mass and energy are equivalent and interchangeable properties according to his famous formula:

E=mc²

Though he did not invent the atomic bomb, this equation laid the theoretical background for it.

     

http://www.redorbit.com/media/uploads/2004/10/6_60c162484c1943aae138f09b8da030e95.jpg

 "Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it."


4. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

It was known that when light was shone on certain substances, the substances gave out electrons, but that only the number of electrons emitted, and not their energy, was increased when the strength of the light was increased.

According to classical theory, when light, thought to be composed of waves, strikes substances, the energy of the liberated electrons ought to be proportional to the intensity of light.

In other words, the energy emitted by the irradiated substance is changing in a discrete quantities rather than in a continuous manner.

              

http://www.goiit.com/upload/2009/8/4/9a7978ae5e90dedeb0e6da408bb2dedb_78928.gif


In 1922, he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour. His travels included Singapore, Ceylon, and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese. His first lecture in Tokyo lasted four hours, after which he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace where thousands came to watch.

On July 14, 1930, Albert Einstein welcomed into his home on the outskirts of Berlin the Indian philosopher Rabindranath Tagore. The two proceeded to have one the most stimulating, intellectually riveting conversations in history, exploring the age-old friction between science and religion.

                   

http://www.brainpickings.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/einsteintagore1.jpg

           "Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind."


On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an "abdominal aortic aneurysm", which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948. He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it. 

       

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Death_headline.jpg

                                          

                                                          "God is subtle but he is not malicious."

                                               

        

SOURCES-

1. www.wikipedia.com

2. www.google.com

3. www.brainpikings.org


       :) THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! :)

REVOLT OF 1857

Posted by Simran Sahni on September 25, 2012 at 10:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Revolt of 1857

            http://www.iloveindia.com/history/pics/revolt-of-1857.jpg

http://nicsr.in/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/revolt_of_1857_20060710.jpg

India's First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of leadership and unity on the part of Indians, as also to cruel suppression by the British Army. It was a remarkable event in Indian history and marked the end of the Mughal empire and sealed India's fate as a British colony for the next 100 years. Causes for the Revolt There were many causes that ultimately lead to this revolt. For the sake of convenience they can divided into the following categories.

                

Tantia Tope                                                                                 Begam Hazrat Mahal

http://gkbasic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Begum-Hazrat-Mahal.jpg

http://www.indianetzone.com/photos_gallery/21/tantiatope_20806.jpg

1.Social and Religious Causes

2.Political Causes

3.Military Causes

1. Social and Religious Causes

A. Change in pattern of trade and commerce

RANI LAXMIBAI                                 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR

     

http://www.jhansiinfo.com/main/rani-lakshmi-bai.jpg       http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/Bahadur_Shah_II.jpg/230px-Bahadur_Shah_II.jpg

During the first two hundred years of its rule , the British East India Company confined its activities to trade and commerce. But in the 18th century the pattern of trade underwent a drastic change. With the onset of the the industrial revolution in England, many new industries came up and the dependance on Indian textiles came to an end. India became a raw material producing country and raw material which was purchased from India at very low costs was processed into finished goods in the factories in England and then exported back to India. British traders made enormous profits in this two way trade.

B. Ruination of Artisans and Craftsmen

Work of Artisans and Craftspersons

       

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-UmMsKSUFDP0/T77a0Q6XbsI/AAAAAAAADTk/UlsT4rCtUPw/s1600/cave_painting_l.jpg

http://framingpainting.com/UploadPic/Rembrandt/big/History%20Painting.jpg

C. Disgruntled Zamindars and Taluqdars

The estates of many landlords were taken over by the East India Company when the native provinces came under the company's dominion.

Some Zamindars and Taluqdars

 

http://sphotos-a.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/c0.0.300.300/p403x403/224763_490889510938589_1605887191_n.jpg

http://profile.ak.fbcdn.net/hprofile-ak-snc6/187943_139310402763170_1332301_n.jpg

The estates of 21,000 Taluqdars were confiscated when Oudh was annexed. The dispossesed landlords found themselves without a source on income, ashamed to beg,unable to work and thus condemned to penury.

D. Disbanded soldiers were seething with anger and were determined to revenge.

Cartridges resulting the revolt


http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/history/files/2012/05/Sepoys_load_cartridges.jpg

E. Activities Of Missionaries


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/Chinese_Martirs.jpg/220px-Chinese_Martirs.jpg

The Indians had a lurking suspicion in their minds that they would be converted to Christianity under the new regime. Churches and chaplains were established at Govt. expenses , even civil and military officers propogated the Christian gospel.

F. New Laws

The introduction of certain laws unsettled the mind of the Indians. Some of them were :

Sati Ban Act


http://www.kashgar.com.au/site/assets/media/images/india/solvyns_sati_plate3.jpg

Widow Remarriage Act

They even looked upon the reforming zeal of British officials with suspicion. They were against introduction of railways as all the castes would have to travel in the same compartment. They were shocked when a law was passed allowing Hindu converts to Christianity to inherit their ancestral property.

2. Political Causes

Lord Dalhousie

   

http://www.indianetzone.com/photos_gallery/13/LordDalhousie_19349.jpg

http://www.ezeelearning.com/htmlmindmaps/Class%20-%208/Social%20Science/Chapter2_History-1444/hasting.JPG

A. Lord Dalhousies Policy Of Annexation (Doctrine of Lapse)

Peshwa Baji Rao II


http://satyaitihas.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/1276586821_bajirao-peshwe-resize_500.jpg

According to this policy the rulers of native princes could not install their adopted son on the throne. This was opposed to Nana Sahib - the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II as he was refused the pension his father had been getting. Rani Laxmi Bai was also not allowed to install her adopted son on the throne. The house of the Mughals was humbled when it was announced that the successors of Bahadur Shah Zafar would not be allowed to use the title of King and would not be allowed to use the Historc Red Fort as thier palace and had to move to a place near the Qutb Minar.

B. British disregard of treaties and pledges

C. Exposure of myth of British Invincibilty

Battle of Plassey

ROBERT CLIVE

  

http://www.webanswers.com/post-images/1/1F/6D3B4CB9-C7C3-B270-9E31146EBB42954D.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Clive.jpg/300px-Clive.jpg

The British had suffered very heavy losses in the 1st Afghan War , the rebellion of the Santhal tribes of Bihar and Orissa and the Crimean War. Moreover the people believed that the British rule had started after the battle of Plassey in 1757 and would end after the completion of a century.

3. MilitaryCauses

A.Ill-Treatment of Indian Soldiers in The East India Company

B. Deprivation of foreign service allowance (Bhatta)

C. General Services Enlistment Act


http://www.mocanyc.org/files/pages/inline_images/14th_ASGInFormation.jpg

According to this act the Indian soldiers in the EI Company had the obligation to serve wherever required. The extension of British frontiers involved their presence in strange, different lands. They dreaded sea voyage and considered it against their customs.

D. Enfield Rifles


http://www.wirtartna.org/Portals/11/images/enfield%20rifle.gif

This was perhaps the immediate cause of the revolt. The British introduced new rifles which had cartridges greased with the fat of cows and pigs. The cover had to be plucked out by the teet before using. The Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused tot ouch these cartridges.

Events Of The Revolt


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_FfN_6KOCJi4/TE_e8yPFhtI/AAAAAAAAEiE/CP9__s6rkgc/s1600/lucknow.jpg

Violence

The violence started on May 10, 1857 in Meerut, when Pandey, a soldier in the Army shot his commander for forcing the Indian troops to use the controversial rifles. Indians constituted 96% of the 300,000 British Army and the violence against British quickly spread (Hence the name Sepoy Mutiny). The local chiefs encouraged scattered revolts in hopes of regaining their lost privileges.

Siege of Delhi


http://www.indianetzone.com/photos_gallery/52/Siege%20of%20Delhi%20Indian%20Sepoy%20Mutiny%201857.jpg

Bahadur Shah II, pensioned descendant of the Mogul dynasty, was popularly acclaimed emperor. On June 8 a British relief force defeated an army of mutineers at Badli Sari and took up a position on the famous ridge, overlooking the city of Delhi. Nominally the besieging force, they were themselves besieged by the mutineers, who made a daring attempt to intercept their train. The arrival of more British reinforcements finally led to the defeat of the mutineers by John Nicholson, commander of the relief force. After six days of street fighting, Delhi was recaptured.  This action was the turning point in the campaign and is known as Siege of Delhi. Bahadur Shah was captured and was exiled to Burma.


http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/images/map-burma.jpg

British Take Control                                                  Henry Havelock

   

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/GenHHavelock_noframe.png/220px-GenHHavelock_noframe.png

http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m6a8d3ylrx1r7w4czo1_500.jpg

  In spite of the loyalty of the Sikh troops, conquered only eight years before, and of the Gurkhas, the British commander, Sir Colin Campbell, had a difficult task. In addition to quelling the disturbance, he also had to protect the Ganges Valley and all of Hindustan against possible attacks from central India, to the south. Forces were dispatched from Madras and Bombay.

However, the revolt had quickly spread to Kanpur and Lucknow. Kanpur, on the Ganges 250 miles southeast of Delhi, surrendered to the mutineers on June 28, 1857, and was the scene of a massacre before it was recaptured by the British on July 16. Lucknow, 45 miles  to the northeast, had been immediately besieged by the mutineers and was relieved by Henry Havelock's troops on September 25, five days after the final reoccupation of Delhi, the other chief center of the mutiny.

JAMES OUTRAM

   

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/echoes/introduction/0_1.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/SirJamesOutram.jpg/220px-SirJamesOutram.jpg

However, Havelock's forces, even when joined by those of James Outram, were not strong enough to disarm and remove the enemy garrison, and they had to be relieved on November 16 by troops under Colin Campbell. The civilians of Lucknow were evacuated, but not until the siege of Mar. 9-16, 1858, had enough British troops massed to defeat the rebel army.

TANTIA TOPE


http://www.astrojyoti.com/images/indain-history/Tantia-Tope.jpg

The final stage of the mutiny took place in central India, which was aroused by a roving band of rebels under the Maratha General Tatya Tope. After his capture and execution in April 1859, the leaderless mutineers were soon pacified.

Why It Failed?


http://www.unitedsikhs.org/img/sikhsInFrancePostcard.jpg


http://www.nwha.org/news_4Q2002/resources/punjab1.jpg

* Native Indian states, influenced by the example of powerful Hyderabad, did not join the rebels

* Sikh soldiers of the Punjab area remained loyal to the British throughout. The Sikhs were a strong, well trained army, who the British had conquered using Indian soldiers.

BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR


http://www.iloveindia.com/literature/gifs/bahadur-shah-zafar-urdu-poet.jpg

* The aging Bahadur Shah was neither a brave general, nor an astute leader of the people

Epilogue

     QUEEN VICTORIA


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Franz_Xaver_Winterhalter_Family_of_Queen_Victoria.jpg/650px-Franz_Xaver_Winterhalter_Family_of_Queen_Victoria.jpg

In England, the mutiny proved the last straw on the heavy load of criticism and opposition which the East India Company had carried for some time. In August 1858, by the Act for the Better Government of India, its political authority was entrusted to a secretary of state.  In August 1858 the British crown assumed control of India from the East India Company  and in 1877 Queen Victoria was crowned empress of India.

                                                                   MAHATMA GANDHI


http://www.topnews.in/files/Mahatma-Gandhi_4.jpg

The mutiny played a pivotal role in Anglo-Indian history. The British afterward became cautious and defensive about their empire, while many Indians remained bitter and would never trust their rulers again. It was not until the emergence of Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi   that Indians  re-gathered their momentum for home rule.

M.O.N.U.M.E.N.T.S.

Posted by Aarushi Dwivedi on September 25, 2012 at 10:45 AM Comments comments (3)

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=taj+mahal&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=DxHTkub2rVmWLM:&imgrefurl=http://traveling-piont.blogspot.com/2011/01/taj-mahal-india-images-gallery.html&docid=7cYLN_AzaVh-mM&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_ezvIB7AH9LA/SwqyujktA1I/AAAAAAAAAFw/IgFs7bsSjxI/s1600/taj-mahal.jpg&w=640&h=439&ei=IMVlUNKFG8nLrQeV1oCQDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=656&vpy=197&dur=484&hovh=142&hovw=190&tx=107&ty=69&sig=109623439708814703760&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=174&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:146The
 
Taj Mahal is the epitome of Mughal art and one of the most famous buildings in the world. Yet there have been few serious studies of it and no full analysis of its architecture and meaning. Ebba Koch, an important scholar, has been permitted to take measurements of the complex and has been working on the palaces and gardens of Shah Jahan for thirty years and on the Taj Mahal itself—the tomb of the emperor's wife, Mumtaz Mahal—for a decade.
http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=taj+mahal&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=_I7g80BNQXkcSM:&imgrefurl=http://www.indovacations.net/english/Agra_Tajmahal.htm&docid=1Xh1l30aSQSV8M&imgurl=http://www.indovacations.net/english/images/03-Taj-Mahal-2%255B2%255D.jpg&w=428&h=640&ei=IMVlUNKFG8nLrQeV1oCQDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=173&vpy=373&dur=1518&hovh=275&hovw=183&tx=81&ty=141&sig=109623439708814703760&page=1&tbnh=132&tbnw=88&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:24,s:0,i:212


The tomb is the representation of the house of the queen in Paradise, and its setting was based on the palace gardens of the great nobles that lined both sides of the river at Agra India. You will explore the entire complex of the Taj Mahal with an explanation of each building and an account of the mausoleum's urban setting, its design and construction, its symbolic meaning, and its history up to the present day.

Qutab Minar

Qutub Minar is the pride of Delhi. The tall minaret was constructed in 1192 by Qutab-ud-din Aibak, and later completed by his successor Iltutmish. The soaring conical tower is an exquisite example of Indo-Islamic Afghan architecture.

Qutub Minar is a World Heritage Site and has survived the ravages of time impressively. The Minar of Delhi is surrounded by a lush green garden, which is an ideal leisurely place for visitors. Qutab Minar is the favourite destination of tourists. It is India's most visited monument attracting around 3.9 million visitors every year.

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=qutab+minar&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=wUBQB7CZxavldM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qutb_Minar&docid=auc7LYRMSwqfjM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Q_Minar.jpg/250px-Q_Minar.jpg&w=250&h=167&ei=4sVlUL6PL4f4rQf_soCADw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=202&vpy=217&dur=291&hovh=133&hovw=200&tx=132&ty=75&sig=109623439708814703760&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=123&tbnw=164&start=0&ndsp=40&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:70
Iron pilar

Qutub Minar has some adjoining structures that lend shine of some of its fame. The Qutub complex houses the iron wonder nearby. The Iron Pillar is one of the metallurgical interests of the world. It is a thing to study as well as famous tourist destination. Traditionally people believe that if anyone standing in front of pillar with his back towards the column can encircle it with their arms, all his wishes will be fulfilled. Government has built a fence around it for safety.

An earthquake damaged top two floors of the minar during the rule of Firoz Shah; but was repaired by Firoz Shah himself. He built marble pavilions here. In the year 1505, earthquake again damaged it and was repaired by Sikandar Lodi. Once again the minar faced earthquake in the year 1794, then Major Smith refurbished the affected parts of the minar and replaced Firoz Shah's pavilion with his own pavilion. This pavilion was again removed in the year 1848 by Lord Hardinge. Now it can be seen lying between the Dak Bungalow and the Minar in the garden.

Many natural conditions weathered the minar but it is still standing with all the might owing to time to time renovations and reinstated and renovated by the respective rulers.

Me with Iron Pilar :)

Red Fort


The Red sandstone walls of thttp://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=red+fort&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=iR9Lu_KBMqADhM:&imgrefurl=http://www.connaught-place.com/RedFort.aspx&docid=eSnPoX2jYJyqtM&imgurl=http://www.connaught-place.com/images1/redfort.jpg&w=500&h=334&ei=Q8ZlUJvrIoHNrQeL5IDICg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=741&vpy=39&dur=440&hovh=149&hovw=221&tx=121&ty=115&sig=109623439708814703760&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=128&tbnw=187&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0,i:165he

M

assive Red Fort (Lal Qila) rise 33-m above the clamour of Old Delhi as a reminder of the magnificent power and pomp of the Mughal emperors. The walls, built in 1638, were designed to keep out invaders, now they mainly keep out the noise and confusion of the city.

 

The main gate, Lahore Gate, is one of the emotional and symbolic focal points of the modern Indian nation and attracts a major crowd on each Independence Day.

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=red+fort&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=Xz4d4AxQb9UgWM:&imgrefurl=http://boldillibol.co.in/red-fort-lal-qila/&docid=DHFziLzKnkZcdM&imgurl=http://boldillibol.co.in/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Red-Fort.jpg&w=800&h=505&ei=Q8ZlUJvrIoHNrQeL5IDICg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=3&sig=109623439708814703760&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=131&tbnw=182&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:146&tx=74&ty=73

The vaulted arcade of Chatta Chowk, a bazaar selling tourist trinkets, leads into the huge fort compound. Inside is a veritable treasure trove of buildings, including the Drum House, the Hall of Public Audiences, the white marble Hall of Private Audiences, the Pearl Mosque, Royal Baths and Palace of Color.

 

An evening sound and light show re-creates events in India's history connected with the fort.

Char minar

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=CHARMINAR&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=HquJ0BhAoJkuoM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charminar&docid=dIYh4DMro6rE5M&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Hyderabad_india_.jpg/220px-Hyderabad_india_.jpg&w=220&h=178&ei=yMZlUOzVBo_qrQfJ64Bg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=396&vpy=208&dur=54&hovh=142&hovw=176&tx=110&ty=90&sig=109623439708814703760&page=1&tbnh=128&tbnw=161&start=0&ndsp=37&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:137

The Charminar in Hyderabad was constructed in 1591 by Mohammed Quli Qutab Shah. He built the Charminar to mark the end of plague in the Hyderabad city. Since the construction of the Charminar, the Hyderabad city has almost become synonymous with the monument. The Charminar is a massive and impressive structure with four minarets. In the evening, with illumination, the great Charminar looks even greater. With the passage of time the Charminar occupied so much importance that it became the heart of all bustling activities. It is in the bustling bazaars around the Charminar that you find the traditional nahari stalls and kulchas of Hyderabad. Hyderabad is one of those few cities, which have a fine blend of modernity and tradition.


 http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=CHARMINAR&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=JomsQxVRneMDeM:&imgrefurl=http://www.hyderabadisearch.com/hyderabadi/HyderabadPlaces.aspx%3FId%3D21%26CatId%3D4%26CatName%3DHistorical%2520Places%26Name%3DCharminar&docid=44AT63KIy95IPM&imgurl=http://www.hyderabadisearch.com/hyderabadi/Admin/Places/Charminar.jpg&w=200&h=225&ei=yMZlUOzVBo_qrQfJ64Bg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1399&vpy=189&dur=647&hovh=180&hovw=160&tx=115&ty=97&sig=109623439708814703760&page=1&tbnh=128&tbnw=122&start=0&ndsp=37&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0,i:158

Imambara

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=Imambara&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=oRTbQAtuYNwQ5M:&imgrefurl=http://www.indialine.com/travel/uttarpradesh/lucknow/&docid=tGIe3h8WIkKW6M&imgurl=http://www.indialine.com/travel/images/bara-imambara.jpg&w=350&h=250&ei=McdlUKeNDdHirAe6x4HgAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=341&vpy=183&dur=346&hovh=190&hovw=266&tx=152&ty=115&sig=109623439708814703760&page=1&tbnh=126&tbnw=161&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:124

The architecture of the complex reflects the maturation of ornamented Mughal design, namely the Badshahi Mosque - it is one of the last major projects not incorporating any European elements or the use of iron. The main imambara consists of a large vaulted central chamber containing the tomb of Asaf-ud-Daula. At 50 by 16 meters and over 15 meters tall, it has no beams supporting the ceiling and is one of the largest such arched constructions in the world. There are eight surrounding chambers built to different roof heights, permitting the space above these to be reconstructed as a three-dimensional labyrinth with passages interconnecting with each other through 489 identical doorways. This part of the building, and often the whole complex, may be referred to as the bhulbhulayah. Known as a popular attraction, it is possibly the only existing maze in India and came about unintenionally to support the weight of the building which is constructed on marshy land. Asaf-ud-Daula also erected the 18 meter (59 foot) high Rumi Darwaza, just outside. This portal, embellished with lavish decorations, was the Imambara's west facing entrance.

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=Imambara&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=BgL8QY0bkeXnvM:&imgrefurl=http://indianmosques.blogspot.com/2009/06/legacy-of-adilshahi-dynastybijapurkashm.html&docid=AnGVZ4dUx5_W3M&imgurl=http://www.frankossen.com/Imambara_Corridor_-_Lucknow.jpg&w=353&h=521&ei=McdlUKeNDdHirAe6x4HgAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1014&vpy=286&dur=120&hovh=273&hovw=185&tx=124&ty=142&sig=109623439708814703760&page=1&tbnh=138&tbnw=104&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0,i:161

Legend

 

There is also a blocked (tunnel) passageway which, according to legends, leads through a mile-long underground passage to a location near the Gomti river. Other passages are rumoured to lead to Faizabad (the former seat of power of the Nawabs), Allahabad and even to Delhi. They exist but have been sealed after a period of long disuse as well as fears over the disappearance of people who had purportedly gone missing, while exploring.


http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=Im
ambara&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=is
ch&tbnid=kxsH68LvK-R8-M:&imgrefurl
=http://www.lucknowonline.co.in/po
pup_att1.html&docid=g5HtYqyjzjINYM&
imgurl=http://www.lucknowonline.co.
in/images/b_bara_imambara_lucknow.j
pg&w=850&h=630&ei=McdlUKeNDdHirAe6x4
HgAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1298&vpy=495&d
ur=789&hovh=193&hovw=261&tx=183&ty=114&si
g=109623439708814703760&page=2&tbnh=139&tbnw=187&start=32&ndsp=36&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:32,i:243

Dwaraka Temple

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=dwaraka+temple&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&tbm=isch&tbnid=36AyJHT0rKs02M:&imgrefurl=http://www.religiousindia.info/dwarka-temple-jagatmandir-temple/&docid=Lz6XHeqM7pi9NM&imgurl=http://www.religiousindia.info/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/283279782_97e65e464d.jpg&w=500&h=375&ei=78dlUP_jNILprQe_kYHgCA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=944&vpy=492&dur=59&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=149&ty=122&sig=109623439708814703760&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=177&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:25,s:0,i:146

Amazing fact about this Temple: Because of earthquake it has been inside the water, but still is able to come out. :) 

The present temple was built in 16th century CE, while the original temple was believed to have been built by Krishna's great grandson, King Vajra. The 5-storied temple is made of limestone and sand. A flag hoisted in the temple tower five times each day. There are two gateways - Swarga Dwar, where pilgrims enter, and Moksha Dwar, where pilgrims exit. From the temple one can view the Sangam (confluence) of River Gomati flowing towards the sea. In Dwaraka, there are also shrines for Vasudeva, Devaki, Balarama and Revati, Subhadra, Rukmini Devi, Jambavati Devi and Satyabhama Devi.

There is a special temple for Rukmini Devi on the way to Bet Dwarka temple. Bet Dwarka a similar deity of Lord Dwarakanath is also kept in Bet Dwaraka. By boat one can reach the temple of Bet Dwarka. The temple has many Shrines for Lakshmi Narayana, Trivikrama, Jambavati Devi, Satyabhama Devi and Rukmini Devi.

http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=dwaraka+temple&start=28&num=10&hl=en&biw=1600&bih=799&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=4wnYNuIPxagdmM:&imgrefurl=http://indian-temple-photo.blogspot.com/2011/04/indian-hindu-temple-dwarka-photo.html&docid=iObn1rw_M8jhxM&imgurl=http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-t7Wwpsdj280/Taf9KiFJPpI/AAAAAAAAAGc/81Wui2x2Irc/s1600/dwarkadhish-popular-hindu-temple-in-india-images-free-download.jpg&w=1024&h=768&ei=8sdlUN3uA8errAfoooCYBw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1086&vpy=408&dur=2438&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=110&ty=126&sig=109623439708814703760&page=2&tbnh=144&tbnw=192&ndsp=40&ved=1t:429,r:21,s:28,i:71

Dwarka  also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka, is a city and a municipality of Jamnagar district in the Gujarat state in India. Dwarka (Dvaraka in Sanskrit - used in this article when referring to the city in a historical context), also known as Dwarawati in Sanskrit literature is rated as one of the seven most ancient cities in the country. The legendary city of Dvaraka was the dwelling place of Lord Krishna.

 


Rss_feed